Difference between revisions of "Equipment/Stratasys FDM 1650"

From London Hackspace Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(TODO)
m
 
(47 intermediate revisions by 9 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
==Background==
+
{{EquipmentInfobox
 +
|name=Stratasys 3D printer<!-- Do not change! Takes name from the name of the wiki page it is on. -->
 +
|image=stratasys.jpg <!-- Image of the item. Leave with placeholder image if none exists. -->
 +
|category=Equipment <!-- Main category. Please leave alone to keep item in this category -->
 +
|subcat=Defunct <!-- Sub-category if one exists. Please check main listing to see other categories contained within the main one -->
 +
|status=Scrapped
 +
|consumables=Printer filament <!-- Any items used up in normal operation, such as; ink, paper, saw-blades, cutting disks, oil, etc.. -->
 +
|accessories=<!-- Any items associated with the equipment but not consumable, such as; drill bits, safety gloves, goggles, etc.. -->
 +
|reqtraining=Yes <!-- Is training required to use this equipment? Yes or no. -->
 +
|trainlink=[[#Training & instruction]]<!-- If training is required, provide a link to training signup or contact page. Otherwise leave blank. -->
 +
|acnode=Yes
 +
|owner=LHS <!-- Provide a link to owners members page if other than LHS -->
 +
|origin=Donation <!-- If via pledge, please link to the completed pledge page on the wiki -->
 +
|location=3D printer area, Ground floor <!-- Floor, room/zone and location within that area -->
 +
|maintainers=Hipster <!-- If an individual is nominated as managing the upkeep of this item, please list them here. -->
 +
|itemId=<!-- Item ID code if available -->
 +
|template_ver=1.0 <!-- Please do not change. Used for tracking out-of-date templates -->
 +
}}
 +
=Description=
 +
The Stratasys is a commercial-grade 3D printer that was [http://groups.google.com/group/london-hack-space/browse_thread/thread/a4088a8560511d67 donated to the LHS by Imperial College London]. It was repaired for a time, but is currently undergoing an extensive refurbishment to bring the electronics up to modern standards and properly convert it to non-vendor-specific feedstock.
  
http://groups.google.com/group/london-hack-space/browse_thread/thread/a4088a8560511d67
 
  
 +
'''DISPOSAL: Notice of Disposal applied by Tgreer on 11/12/2016. Scrapped & gutted sometime over xmas period by Hipster.'''
  
==TODO==
+
== Pictures ==
  
 +
{|
 +
| [[File:FDM_1650.JPG|thumb|What it could look like, one day.]]
 +
| [[File:Stratasys_controls.jpg|thumb|The control panel for the Stratasys.]]
 +
| [[File:Stratasys_side.jpg|thumb|A side view of the Stratasys.]]
 +
|}
  
* One or more driver boards thought to be faulty, possibly requiring transistors or capacitors to be replaced.
+
=Specification & documentation=
**There is a report below that the self-test passes. Does this not include driver boards ? Does it now fail ?
 
***The self-test (press both X cursor buttons while switching on) does indeed cause several movements but then hits the side of the cabinet. Therefore not completed.
 
***Feed Home command (ACL interface) seems to do something sensible
 
***Manual XYZ movements all operate
 
***Homing Z tries to run substrate into extruder, was stopped. Z axis limit switch needs examining.
 
**Document state of boards
 
**Contact Ally to find out details of common faults
 
**Repair if possible
 
  
* Possibly document connections from the automove unit -- at some point, we're going to need to figure out how to drive the heaters/extruder from the automove. Might as well do as much as possible now, while it's open anyway.
+
*Usable Print Area: 270mm x 270mm x 300mm
** Is anything connected to the 38v coil drivers, the DE-9?
+
*Top Print Speed: 20mm/sec (Yes its slow)
** What is connected to the digital I/O connector, the 36-pin female "printer" port?
+
*Print Tolerance: 0.05mm in X and Y axes. Z axis is dependent on layer thickness
 +
*Layer Thickness: 0.05mm to 0.2mm
 +
*Supported Materials: ABS and PLA plastic filaments
 +
*Usable Filament Sizes: standard 1.75mm
  
* Calibrate
 
  
* If we wanted to use the stratasys with skeinforge, we'd need to get skeinforge to output appropriate movement commands or, perhaps more maintainably, translate the G-code output into ACL. This might not be too difficult : skeinforge seems to use a very limited section of G and M codes, notably
+
=Training & instruction=
  
G1 linear move
+
Training '''IS REQUIRED''' and is being carried out voluntarily by the current maintainers, more info on the separate [[3dprinter_training|training page]]
G2 cw arc
 
G3 ccw arc
 
G21 set units to mm
 
G28 home
 
G90 set absolute distance mode
 
G91 set incremental distance mode
 
 
M101 extruder on
 
M103 extruder off
 
M104-108 extruder temperature control
 
M110 filament height ?
 
M113 duty cycle ?
 
  
*Write translator to perform the above conversion
+
Please do not use the printer if you have not been trained, even if you think you know how to use it.
  
 +
==Consumables==
 +
Only filament provided by the maintainers can be used in the Stratasys. This is to prevent any issues with poor quality filament. If we're running low on filament (or tape), ro recommended alternative providers, let them know (via the [[mailing list]]).
  
* ???
+
Filament options (3.0mm)
* Profit
+
*ABS (lego brick plastic - prints at 190-230 DegC, requires heated bed at 100-110 DegC)
 +
*PLA (biodegradable , based on food starch - prints at 185-190 DegC, optional heated bed, not hotter than 60 DegC)
 +
*There are other 'specialist' filament, like wood effect, stone effect, nylon (can be coloured by clothes dye), etc
  
==DONE==
+
== 3D printing process ==
* Power up normally.  Are there any bad-looking lights on the front panel?  If so, something is stuck.
+
[[File:3D_Print_process.png ]]
  DONE! - It's fine.
 
  
* Power up with left and right buttons pressed, should start self-test run.  It will loop, power-off or hit reset to stop it.
+
=Log=
  DONE! - It works as expected. Ran through all the self-tests, and they came out ok.
+
==Original use==
  They're all in the service manual. Have a look.
+
For pre-refurbishment logs, see the legacy sub-page here: [[Stratasys_FDM_1650/Legacy#Logs]]
  
* Connect the serial port up.  Document how to reach it on this wiki page.
+
==Refurbishment==
* Open her up, document the position of the switches on the back of the automove unit.
+
===TODO===
* Determine serial parameters from the dip switches, see page 9 of [http://www-car.asymtek.com/support/manuals/70_0045_20_C.pdf the automove operation manual].
 
  DONE!  [[Equipment:Stratasys_FDM_1650#COM1_Settings]]
 
  
* Using [http://www.nordson.com/en-us/divisions/asymtek/documents/manuals/76_cs02_01_acl_manual.pdf the acl docs], find the current values of the personality parameters, document them here. This will hopefully keep us from loosing them by accident later, and tell us a bit about how the machine is set up. You'll want the OP command, page 3-50, and the list of personality parameters, page 14-1.
+
*1. <s>Remove all the unnecessary wiring, including the old heater tubes.</s> 16-05-2013
  DONE! [[Equipment:Stratasys_FDM_1650#Initial_Conditions]]
+
*2. <s>Identify the wiring on the steppers (these are wired differently to normal).</s> 16-05-2013
 +
*3. <s>Connect the motors to the 4pi (http://wiki.arcol.hu/blog:4pi) and calibrate the settings.</s>
 +
*4. <s>Redesign the head end for 2 hot-ends and extruders.</s>
 +
*5. <s>Connected hot ends and run heat and thermistor checks. </s>
 +
*6. <s>Head end redesign complete, waiting for aluminium part for mounting hot-ends</s>
 +
*7. <s>Filament path checks.</s>
 +
*8. Install Raspberry Pi with Octoprint and touch-screen.
 +
*9. Dual head calibration test print.
 +
*10. Heated chamber (required for ABS), phase 2.
  
==Current Status - 6/10/11==
+
==Updates==
 +
===1-6-2014===
 +
After providing spare hands to tgreer in trying to get the new controller wired in for the open-day, I noticed both motor connector plastics are extremely perished. Sockets and plugs. The Y-axis (?) stepper connector has previously been bodged. Pins no longer make good electrical contact with bodged SIL connector. This is both due to bent pins that have apparently been forced, but also the SIL socket terminals sliding freely in their plastics. Pins on stepper are also able to move into the motor body when pressed! Attempting to press another connector onto them will likely push them all the way into the motor housing, rendering the motor useless.
 +
As the motor pins still pass continuity tests, this severely damaged connection seems the likely reason for the motor skipping phases.
 +
My recomendation is that flying leads are soldered directly to the damaged pins and connected to a seperate connector that can be fixed to the chassis. Possibly a DB9.
 +
Replacing the steppers entirely is a possibility, but will be tricky due to the capstan-drive. Removing the stepper will probably mean re-winding and re-tensioning the system.
  
(Billy posted this to the mailing list)
+
The capstan drums seem at risk already however, as the (nylon?) coating on the steel cable is severely deteriorated, cracked and flaking off. Once the coating fails sufficiently to expose the cable, the cable will begin to eat into the surface of the aluminium capstan drums, ruining them. The drums are not likely to be easily replaced, the motors and cable are.
  
Ally, one of Dean's friends, has said that she's happy to help us
+
While the cable is fine for testing use, if the Statasys is going to be used frequently, new cable should be sourced as a priority.
repair it. She's worked on older versions of the Stratasys printers,
 
and she's already had a look at the electronics. She's happy to to
 
show people what needs doing, and how to do it, though she'll need her
 
expenses covering for travel. I think it's inside the M25.
 
  
I'll pass along the contact details.
+
- Sci
  
As for the state of the Stratasys. The transport mechanisms work fine.
+
===27-11-2013===
Both extruders seem to work. The temperature control  mechanisms seem
+
The milled parts should arrive any day now and, once installed, we should be ready for a first test print.
to work, though the machine has the tendency to run for a while, then
 
shut down instantly.
 
  
From what Ally said, this is usually due to either leaking capacitors,
+
As far as I am concerned, based on the investment by members, a successful print of any description, using both extruders or not, is proof of working. Having experimented with Dual Extruders, the configuration too complicated to include this by the (self imposed) deadline.
or two-legged transistors. Usually simple enough to replace, but this
 
project went waaaaaaaay past my skill levels in electronics a long
 
time ago... :))
 
  
The server sitting next to the Stratasys is set up with the OS and
+
Thanks
software needed. We can communicate with the control boards happily.
+
Ian
  
==Current status - 2011-07-01==
 
  
The rackmount machine on the floor is now running XP again; somebody, likely Billy, reinstalled the system without updating this page.
 
  
I've installed speedfan, and disconnected some of the non-software-controllable fans.  This makes it somewhat less horribly loud.
 
  
I've also started documenting the initial parameters below.
+
===01-11-2013===
 +
Currently the Stratasys is moving and the hot-ends/extruders are working.  We are waiting for the aluminium to mount the hot-ends in.
  
The correct serial settings are 9600 7E1 (that is, even parity, 7 data bits, 1 stop bit).  Other settings work, but ESC.E gives errors.
+
Once this is completed, it shouldn't take much longer to have this completed and working.
  
==Current status - 2011-06-23==
+
However, as I mentioned on IRC, if we cannot have a completed print by Christmas, I think this project should be marked as 'not completable'  (if there is such as word) and we call it a day...
  
The rackmount machine on the floor under the terminal to the right of the stratasys is named capak (the man who coined the term "robot").  The user is hackspace/hackspace.  Please use sudo for root.  (The root password is also hackspace.)
+
Thanks
 +
Ian
  
If you know why the monitor is nigh-unreadable, please fix it.
+
===16-05-2013===
 +
To the mailing list:
  
It should be possible to ssh to it from within the space. (Use capak.local.)
+
<code>
 +
Hey all.
  
==Current Status - 10/06/11==
+
Right, finally got time today to do a thorough check-up on the stratasys. As I have rpreviously said, all internal mechanics (including the steppers) are in full working order, especially as I performed a strip and clean to it pre-move.
  
It's kind of functional.
+
After a quick talk with Ian on Wednesday, I have traced all the cables and found all the documentation for the parts, ferrous detecting end-stops, x-y controller pin outs, steppers etc. I have removed the old and power hungry heaters and flourescent lights.
  
There's an computer connected to it and we can get a serial port connection on COM1.
+
I have paird the stepper cables and made ready for the 4-wire board. Also gave another clean
  
At the moment it's only returning error messages.
+
Basically it is ready to be connected to control board and ready to run.  
  
The automated tools can connect happily.
+
All we need now are to nice tourqey nema17 steppers, 2 j-hotends (ian has offered to source and will start pledge, less than £100). Once these have turned up and I've cad modeled them, i will design a nice clean and easily accesable mount for them in the existing hot end housing (also been cleaned).  
  
IT STILL NEEDS CALIBRATION BEFORE USE!!!
+
Charles will need to add a ACNode and it'll be up and running as a tool for the space. But like the laser cutter and charles, I will be its main care-taker/daddy lol.
  
Please do this first, and let us know what happened.
+
Hope this has cleared up any concerns or apprensions about having a fully working, accurate, industrial 3D printer in the space to be used by people with training.
  
There are two printed manuals, a printed service manual, and the rest of the docs are on the desktop in the Stratasys folder.
+
Regards
 +
Hipster
 +
</code>
  
I'm in the middle of setting up the software. It's NOT usable yet!
 
  
I'll be back later tonight to finish setting it up...
+
=Links=
 
 
==Information==
 
 
 
UK reseller is http://www.laserlines.co.uk/.  This one may have come direct from Stratasys, though.
 
 
 
* [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/ Extensive blog on the 1650 and 2000]
 
** Manuals for an FDM 2000 (includes description of Quickslice 5.0 - 1997):
 
*** [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/2000APPL.pdf Applications]
 
*** [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/2000UTIL.pdf Utilities]
 
*** [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/2000INTR.pdf Manual]
 
*** [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/2000PROC.pdf Procedures]
 
** [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/?p=29 Page referencing these] and C:\QuickSliceV64-qsni
 
** [http://www.3d4u.org/MyFDM_Files/cb12abs-sml-101211.txt Calibration file]
 
** [http://3d4u.org/MyFDM/?p=708 Webcams]
 
* [http://haveblue.org/ Another 1650 owner]
 
* [http://www.incredilution.com/2011/01/engineering-to-save-5000/ Repairing an FDM 2000]
 
 
 
* [http://support.knowlton.ohio-state.edu/files/InsightUserGuide.pdf Insight User guide] (2005)
 
 
 
* [http://replay.web.archive.org/19990221032334/http://www.stratasys.com/1600.HTM Stratasys product page] (1999)
 
* [http://www.hive76.org/fdm2000-progress Philadelphia hackspace] with an FDM 2000
 
  
 
==Training==
 
==Training==
Line 157: Line 149:
 
* [http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anlpubs/2001/05/39420.pdf Modification for makerbot-style self-supporting objects]
 
* [http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anlpubs/2001/05/39420.pdf Modification for makerbot-style self-supporting objects]
 
* [http://wiki.makerbot.com/forum/t-284930 Using makerbot parts]
 
* [http://wiki.makerbot.com/forum/t-284930 Using makerbot parts]
 
==Software==
 
Quickslice known versions are 5.0, [http://replay.web.archive.org/19990224223330/http://www.stratasys.com/PR061298.HTML 6.0], 6.1, 6.2, 6.4
 
Insight known version are 3.4.1, 4.2, 6.0, 7.0.  Only 4.2 and below works with the 1650[http://jcflowers1.iweb.bsu.edu/rlo/fdm.htm].
 
 
Answers from Stratasys to emails:
 
: We stop supporting this system a couple years ago, so getting the software for this system is not possible because it cannot be purchased and is only available through a maintenance contract. We are not aware of any third party or open source application that would work on this system.
 
: Quickslice might be archived somewhere, however, we have to adhere to company policy.
 
  
 
==Reverse engineering==
 
==Reverse engineering==
Line 173: Line 157:
 
* [http://utwired.utexas.edu/lff/symposium/proceedingsArchive/pubs/Manuscripts/1998/1998-28-Bertoldi.pdf Some guys at UTexas] managed to cope with it
 
* [http://utwired.utexas.edu/lff/symposium/proceedingsArchive/pubs/Manuscripts/1998/1998-28-Bertoldi.pdf Some guys at UTexas] managed to cope with it
 
* [http://utwired.utexas.edu/lff/symposium/proceedingsArchive/pubs/Manuscripts/1998/1998-28-Bertoldi.pdf Some guys at UChicago] did too
 
* [http://utwired.utexas.edu/lff/symposium/proceedingsArchive/pubs/Manuscripts/1998/1998-28-Bertoldi.pdf Some guys at UChicago] did too
 
 
==Initial conditions==
 
 
 
Firmware Version is 9.01
 
 
OF: Calibration factors: 1.0027,1.0028
 
OI: AUTOMOVE REV 3.60/3.60
 
OL: travel limits: 0,0, 12000, 12000
 
ON: digital inputs state: 0
 
OO: origin : 0,0
 
 
OP: Personality parameters:  (enter OP<space>n; or OP<space>nn;)
 
1: Arrow Single Step Delay: 3000 (factory)
 
2: Arrow slow step delay: 100 (factory)
 
3: Arrow Fast Step Delay: 3 (factory)
 
4: X Arrow Direction Swap: 0 (factory)
 
5: 0
 
6: 0
 
7: 250
 
8: 2
 
9: 2
 
10: 100
 
11: 100
 
12: 100
 
13: 100
 
14: 32767
 
15: 32767
 
16: 32767
 
17: -15
 
18: -15
 
19: 1.0027
 
20: 1.0028
 
21: 8
 
22: 8
 
23: 0
 
24: 0
 
25: 12000
 
26: 12000
 
27: 16504
 
28: 16504
 
29: 1
 
30: 0
 
31: 1
 
32: 40
 
33: 10000
 
34: 40
 
35: 10000
 
36: 0
 
37: 0
 
38: 255
 
39: -1
 
40: 200
 
41: 25
 
42: 1
 
43: 0
 
44: 100
 
45: 32767
 
46: 0
 
47: 200
 
48: 0
 
49: 0
 
50: -1
 
51: 500
 
52: 0
 
53: 150
 
54: 400
 
55: 400
 
56: 10
 
57: 1
 
58: 0
 
59: 0
 
60: 0
 
 
==COM1 Settings==
 
 
Bits per second : 9600 <BR>
 
Data Bits      : 7<BR>
 
Parity          : None<BR>
 
Stop Bits      : 1<BR>
 
Flow Control    : Xon/Xoff<BR>
 
 
These settings are stored in a Hyperterminal session called FDM1650.
 

Latest revision as of 15:09, 31 December 2016

Stratasys 3D printer
Stratasys.jpg
Sub-category Defunct
Status Scrapped
Last updated 31 December 2016 15:09:51
Consumables Printer filament
Training requirement Yes
Training link #Training & instruction
ACnode Yes
Owner LHS
Origin Donation
Location 3D printer area, Ground floor
Maintainers Hipster

Description

The Stratasys is a commercial-grade 3D printer that was donated to the LHS by Imperial College London. It was repaired for a time, but is currently undergoing an extensive refurbishment to bring the electronics up to modern standards and properly convert it to non-vendor-specific feedstock.


DISPOSAL: Notice of Disposal applied by Tgreer on 11/12/2016. Scrapped & gutted sometime over xmas period by Hipster.

Pictures

What it could look like, one day.
The control panel for the Stratasys.
A side view of the Stratasys.

Specification & documentation

  • Usable Print Area: 270mm x 270mm x 300mm
  • Top Print Speed: 20mm/sec (Yes its slow)
  • Print Tolerance: 0.05mm in X and Y axes. Z axis is dependent on layer thickness
  • Layer Thickness: 0.05mm to 0.2mm
  • Supported Materials: ABS and PLA plastic filaments
  • Usable Filament Sizes: standard 1.75mm


Training & instruction

Training IS REQUIRED and is being carried out voluntarily by the current maintainers, more info on the separate training page

Please do not use the printer if you have not been trained, even if you think you know how to use it.

Consumables

Only filament provided by the maintainers can be used in the Stratasys. This is to prevent any issues with poor quality filament. If we're running low on filament (or tape), ro recommended alternative providers, let them know (via the mailing list).

Filament options (3.0mm)

  • ABS (lego brick plastic - prints at 190-230 DegC, requires heated bed at 100-110 DegC)
  • PLA (biodegradable , based on food starch - prints at 185-190 DegC, optional heated bed, not hotter than 60 DegC)
  • There are other 'specialist' filament, like wood effect, stone effect, nylon (can be coloured by clothes dye), etc

3D printing process

3D Print process.png

Log

Original use

For pre-refurbishment logs, see the legacy sub-page here: Stratasys_FDM_1650/Legacy#Logs

Refurbishment

TODO

  • 1. Remove all the unnecessary wiring, including the old heater tubes. 16-05-2013
  • 2. Identify the wiring on the steppers (these are wired differently to normal). 16-05-2013
  • 3. Connect the motors to the 4pi (http://wiki.arcol.hu/blog:4pi) and calibrate the settings.
  • 4. Redesign the head end for 2 hot-ends and extruders.
  • 5. Connected hot ends and run heat and thermistor checks.
  • 6. Head end redesign complete, waiting for aluminium part for mounting hot-ends
  • 7. Filament path checks.
  • 8. Install Raspberry Pi with Octoprint and touch-screen.
  • 9. Dual head calibration test print.
  • 10. Heated chamber (required for ABS), phase 2.

Updates

1-6-2014

After providing spare hands to tgreer in trying to get the new controller wired in for the open-day, I noticed both motor connector plastics are extremely perished. Sockets and plugs. The Y-axis (?) stepper connector has previously been bodged. Pins no longer make good electrical contact with bodged SIL connector. This is both due to bent pins that have apparently been forced, but also the SIL socket terminals sliding freely in their plastics. Pins on stepper are also able to move into the motor body when pressed! Attempting to press another connector onto them will likely push them all the way into the motor housing, rendering the motor useless. As the motor pins still pass continuity tests, this severely damaged connection seems the likely reason for the motor skipping phases. My recomendation is that flying leads are soldered directly to the damaged pins and connected to a seperate connector that can be fixed to the chassis. Possibly a DB9. Replacing the steppers entirely is a possibility, but will be tricky due to the capstan-drive. Removing the stepper will probably mean re-winding and re-tensioning the system.

The capstan drums seem at risk already however, as the (nylon?) coating on the steel cable is severely deteriorated, cracked and flaking off. Once the coating fails sufficiently to expose the cable, the cable will begin to eat into the surface of the aluminium capstan drums, ruining them. The drums are not likely to be easily replaced, the motors and cable are.

While the cable is fine for testing use, if the Statasys is going to be used frequently, new cable should be sourced as a priority.

- Sci

27-11-2013

The milled parts should arrive any day now and, once installed, we should be ready for a first test print.

As far as I am concerned, based on the investment by members, a successful print of any description, using both extruders or not, is proof of working. Having experimented with Dual Extruders, the configuration too complicated to include this by the (self imposed) deadline.

Thanks Ian



01-11-2013

Currently the Stratasys is moving and the hot-ends/extruders are working. We are waiting for the aluminium to mount the hot-ends in.

Once this is completed, it shouldn't take much longer to have this completed and working.

However, as I mentioned on IRC, if we cannot have a completed print by Christmas, I think this project should be marked as 'not completable' (if there is such as word) and we call it a day...

Thanks Ian

16-05-2013

To the mailing list:

Hey all.

Right, finally got time today to do a thorough check-up on the stratasys. As I have rpreviously said, all internal mechanics (including the steppers) are in full working order, especially as I performed a strip and clean to it pre-move.

After a quick talk with Ian on Wednesday, I have traced all the cables and found all the documentation for the parts, ferrous detecting end-stops, x-y controller pin outs, steppers etc. I have removed the old and power hungry heaters and flourescent lights.

I have paird the stepper cables and made ready for the 4-wire board. Also gave another clean

Basically it is ready to be connected to control board and ready to run.

All we need now are to nice tourqey nema17 steppers, 2 j-hotends (ian has offered to source and will start pledge, less than £100). Once these have turned up and I've cad modeled them, i will design a nice clean and easily accesable mount for them in the existing hot end housing (also been cleaned).

Charles will need to add a ACNode and it'll be up and running as a tool for the space. But like the laser cutter and charles, I will be its main care-taker/daddy lol.

Hope this has cleared up any concerns or apprensions about having a fully working, accurate, industrial 3D printer in the space to be used by people with training.

Regards Hipster


Links

Training

Modification

Reverse engineering